Indian History

The Andhra

Around the 2nd century BC, the first Great Kingdom started to rise in Southern India and it started spreading its power all until the 1st century AD. Many travelers spend tours in India to view the long history of the country reflected in many monuments and temples.

This kingdom, that held the name Andhra, originated in the region between the Godavari River and the Krishna and they started gaining control over Southern and central India. They also gained control over the northwest Deccan.

The property and wealth of this dynasty were built on trading with commercial routs that reached Rome in the West and Asia Minor as well. Many visitors come to explore the wonders of the country during their holidays in India.

However, the Andhra Dynasty only remained powerful until the 3rd century AD when rival dynasties that included the Pallavas took control of their lands.

Further to the South, three other dynasties took control of three different regions; the Cheras in the Malabar Cost in the West, the Pandas in the Southern tip of the peninsula, and the Cholas dynasty took control of the lands on the east cost of the Coromandel.

The society was divide into categories based on the geographical characteristics like hills, plains, forests, and deserts rather than the past when the population of India was divided according to the social status of the people.

At this period of time, agriculture and fishing were the major occupations of the people, a number of Indians started working in the spices and gold trading with Rome and Asia Minor.

Although all factors combined would indicate that the Indians would have a stable life, conflicts started to occur between the three dynasties in the South since the beginning of 1st century BC. However, some of the ruins of the constructions of these three dynasties are still included in many travel packages to India.

The Pallavas were able to conquer the capital of the Chola and by the 4th century AD, the Pallavas took control of most of the lands that used to belong to the Chola in the past.

The Pallavas preserved their power and control over the Southern section of India for a very long period till the 9th century AD to become one of the most lasting dynasties in the history of India.

The Guptas

A second great dynasty started to rise in India by the 4th century AD in the North with the name Guptas, an empire that remained in power for more than four centuries leaving behind many achievements that still amaze the people who travel to India.

Historians have found many similarities between the Guptas and the Mauryans. Both were established in 320, BC and AD, both were founded by a king with the name Chandragupta, and they both originate from the ancient kingdom of Magadha.

The king Chandragupta who founded the Guptas dynasty was the ruler of a state within the Magadha Empire and he gained control over a new province by his marriage to a lady from the Licchavi clan, one of the enemies of the Mauryans six centuries in the past.

Chandragupta found himself a king of a powerful kingdom that was established near the Ganges plains that had a large control of the trading routs between the East and the West at the time.

Trading has always been an important source of national income besides tourism with many travelers spending their vacations in India nowadays.

The son of Chandragupta, Samudra Gupta, was able to extend his land from the Punjab till Assam, setting the foundation of the second greatest empire that emerged in pre medieval India.

The new Empire has witnessed its greatest power and influence during the reign of Chandra Gupta II who was able to secure the trading routs in the western coast by the 4th century and he unified all of the Western section of India once again.

The period of these three great kings is considered to be the classical age of the Indian history. It was viewed as a period where cultures, arts, religions, and political stability greatly flourished.

The paintings of the caves of Ajanta and Ellora have given great inspirations to many Buddhism artists throughout Asia. The sculptures of Buddha that were created at the time reflect the characteristics of Classism.

In the field of architecture, this era viewed a new style of designing the Hindu temples that will become the classical style afterwards. Many examples of the classical style of Hindu temples can be included in many affordable tours to India.

This classical style consisted of constricting an inner sanctuary, containing the deity that is linked to a large hall, where prayers were carried out. A good example of this type of art remains in Jhansi near central India. A custom tour to India can always include visits to such monuments.

The period of the Guptas has witnessed the rise of six of the main philosophers of the time and they were able to refute Buddhism with Jainism.

Vedanta, one of the most important philosophers of the Guptas era, was able to set the basis for the Indian philosophy even until today. Many travelers spend tours in India to enjoy the Yuga, meditation, and special philosophy of the country that was always famous for having its unique own magic.

Even astronomy developed greatly during this period with the emerging of Aryabahta, one of the most dominate astronomers of the time, who believed that the planet earth is rotating around its axes and he also contributed to the complex Indian mathematics that was already evolving in this period.

A Chinese Buddhist that visited India during the ruling period of Chandra Gupta II has stated that there were many free hospitals in India and that most Indians were actually vegetarians. The Chinese Buddhist has generally described the empire to be prosperous, happy, and safe.

The Guptas have offered scarifies to Vedas to legitimate their ruling over Southern India and they used to respect the worship of many gods like Shiva, the goddess Shaku, and the god Vishnu. These cults were attracting more and more worshipers at this era.

Many of these temples remain until today and a large number of group tours to India would include visiting these monuments.

The Guptas Empire has remained living peacefully during the ruling period of Kumara Gupta who governed the empire from 415 till 455 AD, but when Skanda Gupta came to rule over the empire in 455, the empire was once again threatened by the White Hans who originated from central Asia and established their presence in Bactria.

Skanda was able to defeat the Hans and sent them back to central Asia, but as usual after his death the Hans have really created turbulence to the trading activities carried out in central Asia. The King Skanda had constructed a number of monuments that amaze tourists who travel to India.

During the 5th century the Hans were able to take control of the Panjabi from the Guptas and they have continued their military campaigns gaining new areas until the total falling down of the Guptas in 550 AD.

After the decline of the Guptas, Northern India was once again split into many independent states but when Harsha vardhana came in power in Sthanvishvara in 660 AD, he ruled over a vast empire stretching over a big section of Northern India and he established Kanauji, his new capital.  However, after his death in 647 AD, Northern India was split once again into many independent states.